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高考英语名师手记-倒装句

2016/6/6 9:37:03 来源: 沪江网      浏览量:27

一.考纲要求
根据考纲的要求,考生需要掌握使用部分倒装和全部倒装的几种常见情况。

二. 命题导向

近年的高考试题主要是考查句子的正确语序、置于句首先的副词、短语和选择连词。

三。复习要点

1. 全部倒装

在下面几种情况下,需把全部的谓语动词放在主语之前,构成全部倒装:

(1)在There be/seem/appear/live/stand/lie/fly/exist/remain等存在句中。例如:

Look, there's that bookshop I was telling you about。

Long ago there lived a king with his three lovely daughters。

(2)表示时间、地点和动作转移的副词如here、there、now、then、up、down、in、away、out等置于句首时,为使生动地描述情景而采用倒装语序。此时,句子多用一般现在时或一般过去时。例如:

There goes the phone. I'll answer it。

There comes the bus!

Suddenly, in came a man with a mask on his face。

(3)Such作表语置于句首时。例如:

Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man and the 20th century's greatest scientist.

(4)直接引语的全部或部分位于句首时。例如:

“If you die, who will get your money?”asked Holmes。

(5)表示地点的介词短语开头的句子。

In the center of the square stands a monument。

On the back wall hangs a portrait。

Inside the pyramids are burial rooms for the kings and queens。

(6)为平衡句子结构,或使上下文衔接紧密,而将作表语的介词短语、形容词、副词或分词提到句首,引起倒装。例如:

Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil。

Seated on the grass are a group of students。

Lying about on the floor are books and magazines。

2.部分倒装

在下列几种情况下,只把助动词、系动词或情态动词放在主语之前,构成部分倒装。

(1) little, never, not, seldom, neither, nor, rarely, seldom, by no means, at no time,under no circumstances, in no case等表示否定意义的单词和短语位于句首时。例如:

Little does he care about what others think。

Under no circumstances are you to leave the house。

Not a word did he say at the meeting yesterday。

(2) 在not…until…, no sooner...than..., scarcely/hardly...when..., not only...but also... neither...nor.。.等句式中。例如:

Not until he told me did I know the truth。

Hardly had she sat down when the phone rang。

Not only do the workers want a pay increase, they want reduced hours as well。

Neither does he drink nor smoke。

(3) 当only 修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时。例如:

Only then did I find I have made a mistake。

(4) 在 so/such …that…。从句中,当so+形容词/副词或such+名词位于句首时。例如:

So exhausted was she that she wanted to have a rest。

(5)当表示前面所说的情况也适用于另一个人或事物时,常用so/as+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,表示“……也是……”。例如:

Times have changed and so have I。

Eve’s very tall, as was her mother。

(6)当neither, nor位于句首, 表示前面否定的内容也适用与另一个人或事物时,常用neither/nor+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,表示“……也不……”。例如:

They couldn’t understand it at the time, and nor could we。

(7)省略if的虚拟条件句,把助动词were、had、should提到主语前面时。例如:

Had it not been for your help, we shouldn't have achieved so much。

(8)as和though引导的让步状语从句时。例如:

Child as he is, he knows a lot of things。

Try as she might, Sue couldn't get the door open。

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

(9)当may放在句首,表达祝愿时。例如:

May you succeed! 祝你成功!

四.注意事项

1. 当主语是人称代词而不是名词时,以简短副词开头的句子不倒装。例如:

Here you are。

Away they went。

2. 当only修饰主语而不是修饰状语时,句子不倒装。例如:

Only you are responsible for what you will become in the future。

Only in this way can you learn English well。

3. not 修饰主语而不是修饰动词时,句子不倒装。例如:

Not one of the students knew the answer。

4. 当前后两个说话人谈论的是同一人、同一事时,常用so/as+主语+系动词/助动词/情态动词,不再采用主谓倒装。例如:

—I reminded you not to forget the appointment。

—So you did。

—You forgot your purse when you went out。

—Good heavens, so I did。

五. 精典名题导解

1. (2008上海) So much of interest _____ that most visitors simply run out of time before seeing it all。

A. offers Beijing B. Beijing offers C. does Beijing offer D. Beijing does offer

考点解析:题干为so…that句式,因so位于句首,因此主句采用部分倒装语序。最佳答案为C。

2. (2008陕西)Not until the motorbike looked almost new _________ repairing and cleaning it。

A. he stopped B. did he stop C. stopped he D. he did stop

考点解析:题干中含有not...until.。.句式,而且not +until从句位于句首,因此主句采用部分倒装语序。最佳答案为B。

3. (2008辽宁) Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason, and ______。

A. I was neither B. neither was I C. I was either D. either was I

考点解析:前句为否定句,下句不是前句的情况适用于另一主语,因此应用neither/nor+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,最佳答案为B。

4. (2008重庆) Only when I left my parents for Italy ______ how much I loved them。

A. I realized B. I had realized C. had I realized D. did I realize

考点解析:因Only+ when状语从句位于句首,因此主句应采用部分倒装语序,最佳答案为D。

5. (2009年郑州市高中毕业班第一次质量预测) —How did you enjoy your visit?

一 in my life had I received such good service from any business。

A.Few B.Never C.Only D.None

考点解析:依据题干中had I received谓语采用倒装的信息,可判断空白处填副词Never ,最佳答案为B。

6. (江西省重点中学协作体2009届高三第一次联考)—It was careless of you to have left the house without turning off the cooker。

—My God! 。

A.So were you B.So was I C.So did I D.So I did

考点解析:答语中的My God!暗示说话人同意上句的内容,因此空白处填So I did,表示“天那,我真是(太粗心)”。最佳答案为D。

7. (2009年江西省南昌市高三调研测试卷) Never before in greater need of modern public transport than it is today。

A.has this city been B.this city has been

C.was this city D.this city was

考点解析:因含否定意义的词语Never位于句首,因此谓语需用部分倒装语序,句中含副词before多用现在完成时,因此最佳答案为A。

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